This article from JAMA January 3, 2023, Volume 329, Number 1, p. 19-20 argues that relying on variant-specific vaccine boosters is insufficient as a long-term strategy to address COVID-19 globally. Instead, a new generation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is needed to provide longer protection and greater coverage against potential variants. The effectiveness of these new vaccines would need to be ascertained through large randomized clinical trials. To be considered a significant advancement, these new vaccines should ideally protect against a wide range of potential variants, provide at least 75% effectiveness in preventing illness, offer durable protection lasting at least one year, and be suitable for use in all age groups. The ultimate goal is to produce vaccines that offer broad and long-lasting immunity.
The full article from JAMA can be found here: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2799600